Department of Physics and Astronomy

Project Descriptions Research Infrastructures from The Swedish Research Council

Maintenance and operations costs for the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

Infrastructure: IceCube
Project title: Maintenance and operations costs for the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, 
Main appliciant: Olga Botner, Division of High Energy Physics

We apply for the Swedish contribution to M&O costs for IceCube for the years 2019 -2023. The application is a continuation of the operations grant VR 821-2013-1673. The annual contribution rate has been determined in 2010 by the IceCube International Oversight and Finance Group where Sweden is represented by VR and reconfirmed in the cooperative agreement between the National Science Foundation, USA, and IceCube's host laboratory University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 2016. IceCube is the world’s largest neutrino telescope embedded in the clear glacier ice at the South Pole, designed to detect high-energy neutrino radiation from cosmic sources. In 2013 , IceCube discovered high-energy neutrinos of extraterrestrial origin. This represents a breakthrough and opens the path towards neutrino astronomy. Neutrino emission is predicted in models of the mechanisms powering active galaxies and for processes causing gamma ray bursts. 

The design of the telescope allows, however, also research into other topics like searches for dark matter particle candidates, studies of neutrino properties, searches for neutrinos from supernova explosions within the Milky Way and studies of cosmic ray anisotropies. The Swedish groups in Stockholm and Uppsala have been involved in the development of ice-based neutrino telescopes from the very outset i.e. for more than 20 years, participating originally in the AMANDA project which proved that the concept of an ice-based neutrino observatory is viable. AMANDA was the prototype for the much larger IceCube array, deeper in the ice, which was completed in December 2010 and is producing competitive results including the first observation of neutrinos with energy above 1 PeV. This is the energy range where the universe is opaque for gamma rays from beyond our galaxy.  The DeepCore in-fill array allows observation of the full sky including the region close to the galactic center and studies of lower energy phenomena like neutrino oscillations.

Super ADAM @ ILL

Infrastructure: SuperADAM 
Project title: Super ADAM @ ILL
Main applicant: Björgvin Hjörvarsson, Division of Materials Physics

The Super ADAM instrument is a state of the art neutron reflectometer, located at Institute Laue Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, France, running the highest neutron flux research reactor, worldwide. The Super ADAM instrument is ideally located, which is reflected in the  impact and demand for beamtime. The Super ADAM project concerns the operation of the infrastructure, making it accessible to Swedish researchers, both for conducting cutting edge science as well as training through research. The operation is regulated by a CRG contract between ILL and Uppsala University. The training is essential, providing an important competence platform required for the future Swedish utilisation of European Spallation Source (ESS). The aims of the Super ADAM project are therefore threefold:  (i) to provide training possibilities through research, (ii)  provide infrastructure for conducting internationally competitive research, and finally, (iii) provide a platform and remain as a driving force for instrument and method development.

The scientific areas which benefit directly from the access includes e.g. scattering from: 

  1. magnetic layers, superlattices, heterostructures and magnetic meta-materials
  2. self-assembly of surfactants, polymers, lipids and proteins at solid and liquid interfaces
  3. rearrangement processes in thin films (e.g. diffusion, annealing, exchange)
  4. encapsulation in and release from e.g. drug delivery materials
  5. chemical and biochemical surface interactions and reactions
  6. hydrogen in metals

Super Adam will play an important role in these research areas, offering unique information not available by any other research tool.

Infrastructure for research and development of fusion reactors

Infrastructure: Infrastruktur för forskning och utveckling av fusionsreaktorer
Project title: Infrastructure for research and development of fusion reactors
Main applicant: Göran Ericsson​, Division of Applied Nuclear Physics

We seek support for infrastructure aspects of the Swedish participation in the European program in fusion energy research. The long-term goal of the program is a demonstration power plant, DEMO, to provide fusion electricity to the grid by 2050. The medium-term focus is construction and operation of the international fusion reactor ITER, expected to start in the mid 2020’s.

ITER is supported by the EU through i) the procurement agency F4E and ii) a Cofund Joint Action Grant within the “Horizon 2020” framework for development of fusion energy. The Grant has been awarded to a consortium of 29 European fusion research institutions (EUROfusion), including Sweden. A Swedish fusion Research Unit (RU) has been formed to carry out the work within EUROfusion and towards ITER and DEMO. The RU provides expertise in a number of key research areas, e.g., plasma diagnostics, integrated modelling, plasma control and stability, heating and current drive, plasma-wall interactions and fusion technology.

EUROfusion gives Swedish researchers access to the facilities and financial instruments within the Joint Program. Membership also requires the participants to provide a number of administrative and technical services to maintain the infrastructure. These include, e.g., administration of the RU; participation in 9 Project Boards; administration of experimental campaigns; maintenance and operation of instrumentation and facilities; software integration; user fees; in-kind contributions etc.   

THE ACCELERATOR-BASED ION TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM - AB-ITC

Infrastructure: Jonteknologiskt centrum
Project title: THE ACCELERATOR-BASED ION TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM - AB-ITC
Main applicant: Daniel Primetzhofer, Tandem Laboratory

The present project will meet the swedish national scientific, industrial and societal demands within high-quality material analysis by sustaining and advancing the role of the Tandem laboratory at Uppsala University as a national infrastructure for accelerator based Ion Technology. The partners in the present consortium are Uppsala University, The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and Linköping University (LiU).

The present project shall guarantee a sustainable operation and development of the three accelerator systems, the 5 MV tandem accelerator, the 350 kV ion implantation facility, the MICADAS compact mass spectrometer and the associated clean room and sample preparation infrastructure at the laboratory to be used for world-leading research in Ion beam Analysis (IBA), Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM) and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Within AMS, apart from world-leading research in archeology, biomedicine or climate research also the Swedish society and many authorities will benefit from the continual activities at the laboratory. In IBA, in particular via the consortium partners but also the numerous other collaborations research in electronics, optics, hard coatings, materials science and in fusion plasma physics will be conducted with access also for industrial partners. In IBMM, materials with tailored properties can be produced on request for numerous research groups within electronics, fusion research as well as for industrial partners.

Alice & ATLAS

Infrastructure: LHC (Large Hadron Collider)
Projek title: Alice & Atlas
Main applicant: Bengt Lund-Jensen, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan
Co-applicant: Richard Brenner, Division of High Energy Physics

The physics exploitation of the ATLAS and ALICE experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has yielded important physics results, notably the discovery of the Higgs boson, the study of unexpected behaviours in proton lead collisions and new stringent limits on dark matter particles. The LHC accelerator and its experiments with their planned upgrades will continue to be the world leading laboratory for experimental particle and heavy ion physics for the coming 20 years.

The Swedish ALICE and ATLAS research groups at KTH, Lund, Stockholm and Uppsala University have a significant impact on these large international collaborations and have made important contributions to its construction: the Silicon tracker (SCT), Transition radiation tracker (TRT) and the calorimeters (Liquid argon and TileCal) as well as the trigger system in ATLAS and the ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC). These experimental infrastructures are operated by the physicists of the collaborations. Each research group is obliged to take on purely operational work as shifts, expert tasks or maintenance. This funding request concerns the cost for travel to CERN to fulfill the operatiion task obligations of the groups towards the experiments, costs for M&O and data handling costs all in order maintain access to the ALICE and ATLAS data. We also apply for continued support of the CERN summer and technical student programmes for Swedish students.

Instrumentation for E-ELT

Infrastructure: Förberedelser för instrumentering till E-ELT 
Project title: Instrumentation for E-ELT
Main applicant: Göran Östlin, Stockholms universitet
Co-applicant: Nikolai Piskunov, division of Astronomy and Space Physics

The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is Europe’s major organization for observational astronomy and the world’s most productive astronomical observatory. Sweden was one of the founding members of ESO in 1962. Currently ESO runs the Very Large Telescope (four 8.2 m telescopes in Chile) and is part of the ALMA project. ESO’s next ambitious project is to build the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) with a collecting area 20 times larger & a spatial resolution 5 times better than the existing telescopes. 

Apart from the telescope infrastructure, six scientific instruments are in development to make the telescope the most powerful telescope ever built. Large European wide consortia in collaboration with ESO build these instruments. Sweden is a member of the instrument consortia of two instruments (HIRES and MOSAIC). In return for delivering the instrument, ESO provide guaranteed observing nights as well as the possibility to design public surveys.

Both instruments are expected to be real workhorses on the telescope, providing new insights ranging from the characterization of exoplanets, Galactic archaeology as well as galaxy evolution & the detection of the first galaxies.  In this application, we request a contribution to be an active member of the instrument consortia in particular focusing on the development of the data reduction pipelines and the design of the public surveys. In addition, we request a financial contribution to provide hardware to the instrument.